DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic acid is its full name, is the the genetic make up of an organism. The DNA reveals how an organism will function and develop and this is why it is sometimes called a persons blueprint. So the main concept of DNA is long term information storage. DNA is usually shown as a double helix such as the picture. The double helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
The part of the DNA that decides your functions and development is your genetic code or genes (no not the jeans you wore to school the other day).
Animals and plants store their DNA in cells nucleus where as bacteria store their DNA in cytoplasm. Within cells DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes duplicate before the cell splits in a process called cell replication.
DNA is basically a long polymer made of nucleotides. These nucleotides are formed by sugars and phosphates attached to the four bases. The four bases are cytosine, guanine, adenine and thymine. When the sugar and phosphate attach to these bases this makes the back bone of the DNA and is called a nucleotide. Although these nucleotides and strands of DNA are microscopic there can be millions of nucleotides in a single strand of DNA.
Unfortunately DNA is too small to see. =(
So we make it big enough to see! =)
Step 1: Materials to Extract DNA!
The Materials you need to extract DNA are as follows:-A funnel-Salt-Dish Soap-Cheese cloth-Water-Bowl-Another bowl or beaker/measuring cup-Strawberry-Zip lock bag with no holes
Step 2: Make Extraction Liquid!
First take 1 Tablespoon of dish soap with 1/3 cups water and 1/2 teaspoon salt and mix together in a bowl. This will be your extraction liquid.
Step 3: Line the Funnel
Take your cheese cloth and line the funnel with it. Make sure there is no gaps where chunks could get through.
Step 4: Mash Up!
Place the strawberry in the Zip lock bag with no holes and began mashing the strawberry for about 2 min. You want lots of juice.
Step 5: Adding the Extraction Liquid!
Add 3 tablespoons of extraction liquid into the bag of strawberry juice and chunks. Squeeze, blend and mix this for about a min.
Step 6: Filter!
Pour this mixture of extraction liquid and juice into the funnel with cheese cloth and catch liquid in a bowl underneath.
Step 7: After Filtering!
After filtering you can through away the cheese cloth and the stuff in it. Take the liquid that filtered through and pour it into a glass test tube or jar.
Step 8: Rubbing Alcohol!
This is the hardest step. Slowly add the rubbing alcohol in to glass tube or jar down the side. These should not mix as the DNA forms between these two layers.o slow and take your time.
Step 9: Visible DNA!
The DNA may not form right away but you can use the stir stick to gently stick into the 2 layers and when you pull it out there should be some white sticky stuff. The white sticky stuff is the DNA! (The white isn't just one piece of DNA it is actually a lot (A LOT) of them stuck together.)As a word of caution, DON'T DRINK THIS MIXTURE WHEN YOUR DONE, THE ALCOHOL PROBABLY ISN'T GOOD FOR YOU AND THE DISH SOAP ISN'T EITHER!!!